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General Logistics

The origin of logistics

"Distribution" the word first appeared in United States. 1921, Archie. Shaw of the circulation problems (Some Problem in Market Distribution) presented in the book "logistics is required in creating a different problem", and refers to "material transfer through time or space, will produce added value". Here, Market Distribution refers to the business; transfer refers to the sales process of time and space logistics.
In the first world war in 1918, United Kingdom Lord Buddha in lifeihamu the establishment of the "instant delivery company limited". Its corporate purpose is the goods in the country in time to wholesalers, retailers, and the user's hands, the move was heralded by the academics of logistics-related "the early literature of logistics".
Early 30 's, in a basic textbook on marketing and began involved in logistics and transport, the physical supply of stocks, such as business (Physical Supply), which is a noun, the book defines marketing as "product-ne transfer activities and the physical flow of the products". Here, the said transfer of ownership refers to the trade flow, material circulation refers to the logistics.
In 1935, the United States Marketing Association first defines the logistics "Logistics (Physical Distribution) is included in the sale of material goods and services, from production to consumption location and flow in the course of activities".
Logistics circles, this history is generally considered to be the early stages of the logistics.
Japan started in 1964 using the concept of logistics. Before the use the term logistics, Japan commodity-related business and, collectively referred to as "technique". 1956 Japan productive Department dispatched "circulation of technical mission" by Waseda University Professor yuyezhengxiong, a 7-Member United States investigation became clear Japan ever called "technique", equivalent to the United States called "Physical Distribution" (in kind) content distribution technology in accordance with United States short, called "p · D·"," P· D·" The term has been widely used. In 1964, Japan Ikeda Cabinet planning team for five years in plain talk about "p · D·" This term, said, "more than, call 'P · D·' Rather than ' circulation ' is better. "In 1965, Japan formally adopted in the Government document" flow ", the term, referred to as" logistics ".
In 1981, the Japan Research Institute, mediated by the logistics Handbook, the "logistics" formulation is: "material from the physical movement of supplies to those who need it, is to create economic activity in time, place value. From the category of logistics, including: packaging, loading and unloading, storage, inventory management, distribution processing, transportation, distribution, and other various activities. "
China began to use the "logistics" was started in 1979 (it was suggested that Sun Yat-Sen's advocate "a smooth flow of the UNCTAD", can be said to be China's "the origin of logistics"). In June 1979, supplies workers delegation to Japan to participate in the third International Conference on logistics, back references and using for the first time in the investigation report "logistics" this term. But there was a small amount of twists and turns, when the Commerce Department proposed establishing "Logistics Center" issues, the view was expressed that "logistics" term comes from Japan, borders on worship, is to establish "Transportation Center". In fact, storage and transport are the subject of logistics, but a wider circulation of extension. And logistics is Japan refer to Chinese logistics as "material flow" abbreviation, reference both scientific, precise and easy to understand. Resumed soon called "Logistics Center". 1988 Taiwan also began to use the "logistics" of this concept. In April 1989, the eighth international logistics Conference held in Beijing, "logistics" uses of the term increasingly common.
Transfer from the emergence of the term Logistics global net
During the second world war, United States the relative to the supply of arms, starting with logistics management (Logistics Management), which is a noun, on the transport of arms, supplies, and conduct a comprehensive cantonment management. Since then, the logistics and gradually formed a separate subject, and the continuing development of logistics engineering (Logistics Engineering), logistics (Logistics Management) and logistics distribution (Logistics of Distribution). Logistics management methods are introduced to the commercial sector, which is regarded as commercial logistics (Business Logistics). Defined as "including the flow of raw materials, product distribution, transportation, purchase, storage and inventory control, customer service and other business activities", the field contains the raw material logistics, production logistics, distribution logistics.
During the 50 's to the 70 's, research is the narrow logistics, logistics activities is related to sales, commodity motion in the mother's circulation process. Words so often used Physical Distribution.
In 1986, the United States Council of logistics management (N.C.P.D.M; National Council of Phy-sical Distribution Management) changed its name to C.L.M, The Council of Logistics Management. To change the Physical Distribution Logistics, and the reason is because the field of Physical Distribution are narrow, Logistics concept is relatively broad, coherent and whole. The renamed United States Logistics Association (C.L.M) made to the Logistics is defined as: "to suit customer requirements for the purpose of raw material, WIP, finished goods and related information from the industry and the consumer between circulation and keep, for the sake of efficiency and the maximum ' relative effect on costs ' and to plan, execute, control".
Difference between Logistics and Physical Distribution, Logistics has exceeded the scope of commodity circulation, expanded its activities to areas of production logistics. Logistics is not only starting from the factory, but from raw material procurement, production to sales and after-sales service of the product until the scrap recycling throughout the physical distribution process. This is because with the development of production, labor more and more detailed, large manufacturers tend to production of finished parts, packages to other professional manufacturers, only these parts and components are assembled, and these professional manufacturers may be in places where labour is cheaper in the world. In this case, logistics is not only maintained a close relationship with the circulation system, and also had a close relationship with the production system. In this way, logistics, Commerce and production side knot with three aspects, you can generate more efficiency and effectiveness. In recent years, Japan, the United States imported wholesale and retail chains, the use of this concept has accumulated many successful experiences.
Thus it can be seen, the current characteristics of Logistics is mentioned: ① the extension more than a narrow logistics (logistics), because it extends to start production; ② extension less than broad logistics (Business Logistics), because it does not include raw material logistics; ③ the extension line with the extension of the supply chain, so some people call it supply chain logistics.
Appearance of the word Logistics, is the inevitable result of the development of the world economy and science and technology. Currently is developing towards globalization, information, integration of the logistics industry. A country's market opening and development will require the opening and development of logistics. With the formation of world commodity markets, from the increasing globalisation of the markets to eventually market the logistics information technology, information systems are running between different enterprises, brought changes to logistics functions, greatly improving the efficiency of logistics, but also created the conditions for integrated logistics; integration means that needs integration, distribution and inventory management. All of these have become the international logistics industry development direction.

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